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COUNTRY REPORT - JORDAN    ty and satisfaction of these public sector fleets, through conducting a thorough study for the working conditions of the fleet and recom- mending a simplified “Tire Management System”, that was tailored for this specific fleet. Osama’s respectful guarantee policy and quality repairs were appreciated by those fleet operators. Meanwhile, an important activity was happening on the Iraqi Jorda- nian border at the time, which influenced the success of all retread- ers working at that time, and this was during the period 1995-2010. This was the importation of retreaded tyres from Jordan to Iraq without duties. Iraqi trucks travelling to Aqaba port used to fit used tyres in bad condition at the Iraqi border before going inside Jordan to Aqaba port to unload. They then changed their tyres to retreads manufactured by Jordanian Retreaders, cross the Jordanian and Iraqi borders, and after the Iraqi border they used to dismount those retreads and sell them to Iraqi tyre dealers and wholesalers. At that time Jordan-made retreads were a lot cheaper than Iraqi-made ones due to lower import duties on raw materials in Jordan, until the Ira- qi Authorities observed this activity and began to register the serial number of each tyre at the Iraqi border and charge duties if the tyres were changed inside Jordan. During this period the business of Jor- danian Tretreading factories was extremely enriched by this activity. With regards to sourcing casings, Osama acted like all other Jorda- nian retreaders by importing sasings from the gulf area and Europe. Thanks to Jordanian Government legislation at that time, the casing size 315/80R22.5 cost thirty five to fifty US$ with a high quality new tyre around 130 to 150 US$, so there was room to sell the retread cap and casing to the Jordanian consumer at a reasonable price. The major truck tire sizes in the Jordanian market are 315/80R22.5, 1200R24 and 385/65R22.5. The Altheqa Factory used to retread all European tyres with full confidence and also guaranteed them, but they didn’t have confidence in retreading Chinese tyres at that time, because of the low Initial price and the quality of the Chinese tyres. The major fleets Osama was supplying relied more on his Tyre Ser- vice Programme, and some of them requested better mileage prod- ucts and other tread patterns for different applications. Osama lis- tened well to their demands and started to consider a development programme for his factory. In 2002 Osama bought new American tyre retreading equipment with the curing being done by the inner and outer envelope and vacuum process, changing the system due to to the huge body effort needed for the Rim Curing System. The pressure chamber capacity was seven tyres, and this production line worked side by side with the old Indian machinery. Osama had to increase the number of technicians in his factory and also increased the number of casing collectors to deliver better and faster service to his end users. Through that development the company, now called “Jawharet Aman for Tire Retreading”, managed to serve better the needs of their end-users. At the end of the 2000 – 2010 decade, some dramatic incidents happened in the Jordanian tyre market that reflected badly on the situation for the tyre retreading business. The supply of retreads to Iraq stopped, and the Jordanian government applied a Sales Tax of sixteen percent on tyre retreading material similar to new tyres. Meanwhile, the penetration of Chinese tyres into the Jordanian truck tyre market, the import of low quality retreading materials, and non-compensation for damaged tyres due to technical defects, all compounded to cause many retread shops to close. As a result the remaining retread shops now number only two, one of which is Jawharet Aman for Tire Retreading. The survival of the factory until now, and the development spirit that Osama believes in reflect both the courage and audacity of Osama Fahmy. He also introduced the repair of heavy equipment OTR tyres, adding many tools that are necessary for this service and introducing a plan to use higher quality patches and consumables. Osama Fahmy summarises his experience as the owner of Jawharet Aman for Tire Retreading Factory by saying that he is totally convinced by the investment he made in that field. He believes he serves the Jordanian Economy by recycling tyres for reuse, that his business helps the environment. He also argues that the tyre re- treading technology he has used is simple and non-sophisticated, and as a result he has made a good return on his investment. His eighteen year old son has now joined him to help in the factory, but his son has different ambitions, related more to computers and IT technology. He strongly believes that the future will bring better results.    P.30 

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